Perinatal asphyxia is a condition in which a baby’s brain does not receive enough oxygen during or after birth. This results in cardiorespiratory or brain damage.
Asphyxia can be fatal. Brain cells can begin dying within as little as 5 minutes without oxygen. The disease can also cause long-term damage, including intellectual disability, delayed development, seizures, and cerebral palsy.
Asphyxia may be caused by:
Factors that increase your baby’s chance of perinatal asphyxia include:
Mild asphyxia may cause:
Severe asphyxia may cause:
A physical exam will be done. Typically, the history is the most important factor in making the diagnosis.
Your baby’s bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Images may need to be taken of your baby’s bodily structures. This can be done with:
Your baby’s heart and brain activity may also be tested. This can be done with:
Life-sustaining treatment may be used if reduced brain function has happened but there is no extensive damage yet. Treatment options include mechanical ventilation to take over or support breathing and oxygen therapy. These treatments will be stooped as your baby recovers.
Medication may be needed to support heart function until your baby recovers. Medication and general anesthesia may also be given to control seizures.
Your baby may be wrapped in cooling blankets within hours of birth. This will lower body temperature and reduce the risk of tissue injury and reduce the risk of long-term problems.
In most cases, asphyxia is sudden and cannot be prevented.
Brain Injury Association of America
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Ontario Brain Injury Association
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8/11/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Azzopardi D, Strohm B, et al. Effects of hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia on childhood outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(2):140-149.
Last reviewed January 2015 by Michael Woods, MDLast Updated: 8/11/2014