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This biopsy is done to determine if cancer cells have spread from the tumor to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer often spreads from the tumor to the nearest lymph node or nodes. These lymph nodes are called the sentinel nodes. It is important to understand that the sentinel node will probably be the first one to get cancer if the cancer has spread. For example, the sentinel nodes in breast cancer are often found in the armpit.
This biopsy is often done during cancer-removal surgery or prior to surgery. Sentinel node biopsy is part of the staging process. Staging is an attempt to determine how much the cancer has spread away from the original tumor. The cancerous tissue may have been biopsied already.
A blue dye, and often a radioactive tracer, will be injected into the area where the tumor is. It may be done several hours before surgery. The dye and tracer will travel from the tumor area to the sentinel nodes. This will also help identify which nodes are the sentinel lymph nodes. A small incision will be made. The sentinel node(s) will be removed. The removed node will be checked for cancer cells. If cancer is found, the rest of the lymph nodes in that area will be removed.
If cancer is not seen in the sentinel node, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to the other remaining lymph nodes. The other lymph nodes are not removed.
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