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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

(PMDD)

Pronounced: PRE-men-strawl dis-FOR-ick dis-OR-der

Definition

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) occurs just prior to menstruation and is characterized by significant:

  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Tension

PMDD is much more severe and less common than premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Causes    TOP

The exact cause is not known.

Risk Factors    TOP

Factors that may increase your chance of PMDD include:

  • Hormonal changes
  • Family history of PMDD
  • Extra stress or a traumatic life event
  • Depression or another mental health condition

Microscopic View of Hormone Receptor

molecule and receptor
Menstruation causes many hormonal changes, which may play a role in PMDD.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Symptoms    TOP

PMDD may cause:

  • Extreme sadness
  • Frequent crying
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Unusually strong cravings for certain foods
  • Difficulty concentrating or paying attention
  • Insomnia
  • Panic attacks
  • Mood swings
  • Fatigue or lack of energy
  • Physical symptoms, such as sore breasts, headaches, joint or muscle pain, swelling, or bloating

Symptoms typically begin 10-14 days prior to the start of menstruation.

Diagnosis    TOP

Your doctor will diagnose PMDD based on your symptoms. You may be asked to keep a record of when your symptoms occur and how severe they are.

Your doctor may also order:

  • Blood tests
  • Tests to check hormone levels

Treatment    TOP

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

Lifestyle Changes

These steps can help manage symptoms of PMDD:

  • Exercise throughout the week.
  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Avoid alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine.
  • Learn stress management techniques.
  • Improve your sleep habits.

Medications

PMDD may be treated with:

  • Antidepressants
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Nutritional supplements

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chance of PMDD, take these steps:

  • Get plenty of exercise and rest
  • Eat a well-balanced diet
  • Manage stress

RESOURCES:

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
http://www.acog.org/Patients
Office on Women's Health
http://www.womenshealth.gov/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
http://sogc.org/publications-resources/patient-fact-sheets

References:

PMS and PMDD. MGH Center for Women's Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated April 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated July 8, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Last reviewed August 2014 by Andrea Chisholm, MD
Last Updated: 9/30/2013