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BCG Vaccine

(Tuberculosis Vaccine)

What Is Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis, or TB, is a bacterial infection that typically targets the lungs. TB can also infect other areas of the body, such as the kidneys, spine, or brain.

TB is spread from the lungs of a person with TB through coughing. When a person coughs or sneezes, the bacteria travel into the air and may be inhaled by a person standing nearby. TB is most commonly spread through repeated contact, such as within a family. Short-term exposure can also cause TB.

At one point, TB was the leading cause of death in the United States. As treatments were developed, TB rates began to drop. Today, there are far fewer cases, but the disease is still present.

TB is still a major health problem throughout the world, particularly in Africa. People with HIV infection also have a higher risk of getting TB.

Symptoms depend on where the bacteria have settled and grown in the body. The lungs are often infected. Symptoms of TB infection in the lungs include:

  • A cough that lasts three weeks or longer
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing up blood or phlegm
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever and chills
  • Night sweats

TB can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics. Without treatment, the disease can be fatal.

What Is the BCG vaccine?    TOP

The Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine, or BCG, can help prevent TB. However, this vaccine does not always protect people from getting TB.

The vaccine contains live, weakened bacteria. It is given as shot in the arm.

Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?    TOP

The following individuals should be considered for vaccination:

  • Children who have a negative tuberculin skin test and who are continually exposed to a person who has untreated or drug resistant tuberculosis, and the child cannot be separated from this person
  • Healthcare workers and people who work in labs who work where there is ongoing transmission of drug-resistant strains of TB that have not been reduced with precautions

The vaccine is usually given one time. It may be given twice in some cases.

What Are the Risks Associated With BCG Vaccine?    TOP

The vaccine may cause a TB skin test to have a false-positive reading. This means that you may test positive for TB even though you do not have it. Blood tests are available to check for TB infection in people that are not affected by previous BCG vaccination.

Common side effects of the vaccine include:

  • Redness at the injection site
  • Fever
  • Muscle aches

More serious side effects may rarely occur and could lead to serious illness or death.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction require medical care right away.

Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?    TOP

You should not get the vaccine if you:

  • Have a compromised immune system
  • Are undergoing an organ transplant
  • Are pregnant

What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?    TOP

Containing TB depends on giving antibiotics and isolating people who are infected. It is important to take all of the antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria and to avoid spreading it to others.

WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov/tb
The BCG World Atlas on BCG Policies
http://www.bcgatlas.org

References:

Active tuberculosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated November 13, 2013. Accessed November 19, 2013.
Basic TB facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated March 13, 2013. Accessed November 19, 2013.
BCG vaccine. DailyMed website. Available at:
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Updated September 2012. Accessed November 19, 2013.
Kaufmann SH. Fact and fiction in tuberculosis vaccine research: 10 years later. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11(8):633-640.
Kaufmann SH, Hussey G, et al. New vaccines for tuberculosis. Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2110-2119.
Tuberculosis in children fact sheet. American Lung Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated March 2013. Accessed November 19, 2013.
Rouanet C, Locht C. Boosting BCG to protect against TB. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010;4(3):339-348.
TB vaccine (BCG). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated August 14, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2013.
Last reviewed November 2014 by David Horn, MD
Last Updated: 11/19/2013