What Is Human Papillomavirus?
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of more than 100 viruses.
Certain types of HPV can cause genital warts, which are growths or bumps that appear:
- On the vulva
- In or around the vagina or anus
- On the cervix
- On the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh
HPV is easily spread during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner.
Many people will be exposed to a form of HPV at some point in their lives. Not all will become infected or develop symptoms.
What Is the HPV Vaccine? ^
The HPV vaccine contains virus-like particles that are not infectious. These particles produce antibodies to prevent HPV from infecting cells. The vaccine is given by injection into the muscle.
The vaccine Gardasil protects against four types of HPV strains. It may be used to prevent the following conditions:
- Cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, and anus
- Genital warts
- Precancerous lesions on the genitals (in women)
Another vaccine called Cervarix protects against 2 types of HPV strains. It is used to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancer in women.
Who Should Be Vaccinated and When? ^
The vaccine is recommended for girls as a 2-dose series between 11 and 12 years old. It may be given starting at age 9. Girls should be vaccinated before their first sexual contact for the vaccine to be most effective. Girls and women aged 13-26 years who did not receive the HPV vaccine when they were younger should receive the vaccine series. Females 15-26 years old will need a 3-dose series at 0, 1-2, and 6 months. Women through age 26 who started the vaccine series before age 15 and only received 1 dose or 2 doses less than 5 months apart will need to receive 1 additional dose.
It is recommended that boys receive 2 doses of Gardasil beginning at age 11-12 years. It may be given starting at age 9. Boys and men aged 13-21 years who did not receive the HPV vaccine when they were younger should receive the vaccine series. Males 15-26 years old will need a 3-dose series at 0, 1-2, and 6 months. Men through age 26 who started the vaccine series before age 15 and only received 1 dose or 2 doses less than 5 months apart will need to receive 1 additional dose. This has changed for adults. The vaccine now seems to be recommended for all men in this age range: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/adult.html. Also should get if HPV vaccination series started before age 15 years, but received only 1 dose, or 2 doses < 5 months apart
Men in the 22-26 years age group should be vaccinated if they have sex with other men, have HIV infection, or have a weak immune system due to other illnesses or medications.
The vaccine is recommended to children aged 9-10 who are at high risk due to a history of sexual abuse.
What Are the Risks Associated With the HPV Vaccine? ^
Research suggests that the vaccine does not appear to cause any serious side effects. Like any vaccine, it has the potential to cause serious problems, such as a severe allergic reaction.
Some problems have been associated with the HPV vaccines, like pain, redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site. Other potential side effects include:
- Mild to moderate fever
- Muscle pain
- Joint pain
- Gastrointestinal symptoms
Who Should Not Be Vaccinated? ^
Do not get the vaccine if you:
- Had a life-threatening allergic reaction to yeast or any other component of the vaccine.
- Are or may be pregnant.
- Are moderately or severely ill. Wait until you have recovered.
What Other Ways Can HPV Be Prevented Besides Vaccination? ^
Avoiding physical contact with an infected sexual partner is the only way to completely prevent the spread of a genital HPV infection. Latex condoms may help reduce the spread. However, condoms are not 100% effective because they do not cover the entire genital area.
Other preventive measures include:
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak? ^
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 6 million new cases of sexually transmitted HPV infections are reported each year. Twenty million people in the United States are already infected. HPV vaccines cannot treat infections that already exist. The best way to prevent further spread of the disease is to get the vaccine before becoming infected.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
National Cancer Institute
Vaccine and Immunizations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
2015 Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm. Accessed November 12, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(20):630-632.
Carter JR, Ding Z, Rose BR. HPV infection and cervical disease: a review. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51(2):103-108.
Heffernan ME, Garland SM, Kane MA. Global reduction of cervical cancer with human papillomavirus vaccines: insights from the hepatitis B virus vaccine experience. Sex Health. 2010;7(3):383-390.
HPV vaccine (Cervarix): What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html. Updated June 18, 2013. Accessed November 12, 2015.
HPV vaccine (Gardasil): What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html. Updated June 18, 2013. Accessed November 12, 2015.
Human papillomavirus vaccine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T908142. Updated September 2, 2016. Accessed October 10, 2016.
Recommended immunization schedules for adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/adult.html. Published February 6, 2017. Accessed February 9, 2017.
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html. Published February 6, 2017. Accessed February 8, 2017.
5/18/2007 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T908142: The FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(19):1915-1927.
6/4/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T908142: FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(20):626-629.
Last reviewed November 2015 by David L. Horn, MD Last Updated: 2/16/2016