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The vertebrae are a series of bones that make up the spine. When one
fractures, it can put pressure on surrounding nerves. This can cause intense pain and disability. The bones may be repaired with these procedures.
In vertebroplasty, an acrylic cement is injected into a fractured and collapsed vertebra (spinal bone). The cement strengthens the bone and decreases pain from the fracture.
In kyphoplasty, a balloon is used to create a cavity to inject the cement into. This procedure is designed to relieve pain. It can also improve spinal deformities from the fractures.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have a vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, your doctor will review a list of possible complications which may include:
Leakage of the cement into the spinal canal or into adjacent veins
Increased back pain
Fracture of adjacent vertebra or ribs
Your doctor may feel that the risks of these procedures are too great if you have:
Vertebral fractures that extend into the spinal canal area
Radiculopathy—irritation of a nerve root in the area of the fracture that often causes areas of numbness, tingling, or weakness in the leg
Unusually soft or porous bones
If you have vertebral fracture due to
osteoporosis, vertebroplasty may not be as effective.
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications such as:
You will be asked to lie down on your stomach. X-ray cameras will be positioned around you. The cameras will show images of the bone. Your doctor will use this to verify the position of the needles and cement.
The skin over the fractured bone will be numbed and sterilized. A hollow needle will be passed into the vertebra. The acrylic cement will be mixed into a toothpaste-like consistency. An added substance, called barium, will improve the images. When the needle position is ideal, the cement will be injected into the fractured bone. The doctor will watch the cement as it enters the bone to check for leaks.
Your doctor will begin by making a small incision in your back. A tiny drill will be used to create an opening in the bone. A special balloon will be passed through. The balloon will be inflated to open the space and correct the deformity. After the balloon is removed, acrylic cement will be injected into the cavity. This will help to maintain the correction.
You may have a CT scan to confirm the position of the cement. You will stay on your stomach for about 10-20 minutes. This will allow the cement to harden. You will then be moved to a recovery room. You will be asked to lie on your back for another hour or so.
You will be monitored for a few hours for any complications.
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as:
Washing their hands
Wearing gloves or masks
Keeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as:
Washing your hands often and reminding visitors and healthcare providers to do the same
Reminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masks
Not allowing others to touch your incisions
You may notice some discomfort at the site of the needle insertion or the tiny incision. This is often relieved through the use of an ice pack (use only for 15 minutes per hour).
Acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine may also help. You may also be given medicine to prevent muscle spasm.
You will be asked to stay in bed for about 24 hours after the procedure. After 24 hours, you can gradually increase your activities up to your usual level. Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.
Predey TA, Sewall LE, Smith SJ. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: New treatment for vertebral compression fractures.
American Family Physician. 2002; 66: 611-615.
Vertebroplasty. RadiologyInfo website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Accessed July 1, 2007.
Vertebroplasty for spine fracture pain. Family Doctor website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Accessed July 1, 2007.
11/9/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance ...(Click grey area to select URL) Buchbinder R, Osborne RH, et al. A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(6):557-568.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance ...(Click grey area to select URL) Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.