Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It can be acute or chronic. Acute hepatitis B usually goes away on its own and may not need treatment.
Chronic hepatitis B is an infection that lasts more than 6 months. Chronic infection can lead to other health problems. Hepatitis B is treated with antiviral medications.
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Hepatitis B is caused by a virus. The virus causes swelling and irritation in the liver and makes it difficult for the liver to function normally.
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is spread by semen, vaginal secretions, saliva, blood, or body fluids from an infected person. The virus can pass from these fluids to your body through an open cut in your skin.
A woman with hepatitis can also pass HBV to her baby during childbirth.
Factors that may increase your chance of getting hepatitis B include:
It is possible that someone infected with HBV may never have symptoms of hepatitis B.
If symptoms do develop, they appear around 60-150 days after exposure. Hepatitis B may cause:
Chronic hepatitis can lead to serious health problems including:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Hepatitis B is diagnosed with blood tests. Blood tests are also used to monitor changes in the liver.
For chronic cases, a liver biopsy may be needed.
Acute infection may not need any treatment since it usually goes away on its own.
Chronic hepatitis B may be treated with a combination of different antiviral medications. All medications do not work the same in all people. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you.
Your doctor may also ask that you:
There is a vaccine for hepatitis B that is available for adults. This vaccine is usually given as a series of three injections. In addition, the vaccine is routinely given to newborns. Children and teens who were not vaccinated as babies can still receive the shots.
Other prevention strategies include:
American Liver Foundation
Hepatitis B Foundation
Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(3):168-173.
Hepatitis B. American Liver Foundation website. Available at: http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/hepatitisb. Updated February 17, 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Hepatitis B information for health professionals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV. Updated May 16, 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 4, 2014. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Vaccine information statement: hepatitis B vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.pdf. Updated June 18, 2013. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Workowski KA, Berman S, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.
10/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) recommendations on testing for sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men. Available at: http://www.bashh.org/documents/BASHH%20Recommendations%20for%20testing%20for%20STIs%20in%20MSM%20-%20FINAL.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed October 8, 2014.
Last reviewed February 2015 by David L Horn, MD, FACP Last Updated: 10/8/2014