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Pericardiocentesis may be used as a treatment. If too much fluid builds up in the sac, this can put extra pressure on the heart. This is known as
cardiac tamponade. It is a life-threatening condition. Withdrawing some of the fluid will help to relieve the pressure on the heart.
Pericardiocentesis may also be used to diagnose the cause of fluid buildup. Fluid buildup is known as pericardial effusion. The buildup can be caused by an infection,
cancer, trauma, autoimmune disorders, or
drug use. It may also indicate the presence of
heart attack, or
You will lie on a table. An IV line will be inserted into your arm. The sedative will be delivered this way. The area where the needle will be inserted will be washed. Your heart will be monitored.
The needle will be inserted into the chest. It will be slowly moved toward the heart. Ultrasound and possibly fluoroscopy will be used to help guide the needle to the correct location. The needle will be passed into the pericardial sac, but no further.
Once in the pericardial sac, the fluid will be removed. The needle may be used, or a catheter tube may be inserted over the needle. After some fluid is collected or enough of the fluid has drained out, the needle or catheter will be removed. Pressure will be applied to the injection site for several minutes. This is done to stop the bleeding.
In some cases, your doctor may leave the catheter in place. This will allow draining to continue over several hours or days.
You will have a chest x-ray to make sure your lung has not been punctured. You will be closely monitored for several hours after the procedure. Your pulse, blood pressure, and breathing will be checked regularly.
The fluid removed from the pericardial sac is sent to a lab to be analyzed.
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Pericardium and pericarditis. American Heart Association website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Accessed September 25, 2005.
Protocol cardiac: pericardiocentesis. Vanderbilt University Medical Center website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Accessed September 16, 2005.
Spodick DH. Acute cardiac tamponade.
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Tibbles CD, Porcaro W. Procedural applications of ultrasound.
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6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance ...(Click grey area to select URL) Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.