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Islet cells are the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the transfer of islet cells from a donor to another person. The procedure is being studied as a method to treat
select people with chronic, uncontrolled
(and some type 2) diabetes.
Pancreatic islet cells are made up of alpha and beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. They are destroyed by the body's own immune system. Without these cells, the body is unable to make insulin. As a result, people with type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections.
Transplants are most commonly used for persons with recurrent severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugars) and/or who are also receiving kidney transplants. Newly transplanted islet cells can produce insulin. This allows better daily control of the blood sugars with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia occurs when too much insulin is self-injected or when injected insulin to fails to adapt to changes in the body's glucose use. The transplant reduces, or even may eliminate, the need for self-injection.
Pancreas transplant surgery is major surgery and requires special expertise in select medical centers. The cells are delicate and may fail even in the best of circumstances.
Before surgery, islet cells are removed from a donor pancreas. Usually, these cells are used within the next 24 hours.
An incision will be made in the abdomen. A small plastic tube will be placed through the incision and into a major blood vessel of the liver. An
will be used to locate the right position. Islets cells will be injected through the tube. The cells travel through the vein and attach to the liver. When successful, they will begin making insulin.
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