Pertussis is a bacterial infection. It is also called whooping cough. The bacteria invade the lining of the respiratory tract and may block your airways.
Pertussis is highly contagious, and in some cases, serious. Antibiotics are used to treat pertussis.
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Pertussis is caused by specific bacteria. It is spread by:
Factors that may increase your chances of getting pertussis include:
Symptoms usually begin within a week or 2 after exposure.
Initial symptoms last about 1-2 weeks. They may include:
The second stage of pertussis is called the paroxysmal stage. This stage usually lasts 1-6 weeks, but can last much longer. Symptoms may include:
During the final stage, the cough gradually gets better over 2-3 weeks. Episodes of coughing can still occur during this stage.
Complications in infants and young children may include:
Complications in teens and adults can include weight loss and inability to control urine. Rarely, fainting or rib fractures can occur from severe coughing.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your body fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Treatment may include:
Pertussis is treated with antibiotics, which keeps the infection from spreading. They are most effective when started in the early stages. They will usually not improve the symptoms or otherwise affect the illness.
Antibiotics or cough medications do not prevent coughing. The following steps may help control symptoms and prevent complications:
This may be necessary for those who develop severe infections. Patients are usually isolated to prevent spreading the disease to other people.
The best way to prevent pertussis is immunization. All children (with few exceptions) should receive the DTaP vaccine series. This protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Another vaccine called Tdap is routinely given to children aged 11-12 after they have completed the DTaP series of shots. There are also catch-up schedules for children and adults who have not been fully vaccinated.
Pregnant women should have a dose of Tdap during every pregnancy to protect newborns from pertussis.
People in close contact with someone infected with pertussis may be advised to take preventive antibiotics, even if they've been vaccinated. This is especially important in households with members at high risk for severe disease, such as children under 1 year of age or people with weak immune systems.
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Public Health Agency of Canada
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated January 31, 2014. Accessed January 22, 2015.
Pertussis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114591/Pertussis. Updated April 16, 2016. Accessed September 12, 2016.
Pertussis. PEMSoft at EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Accessed January 22, 2015.
Pertussis (whooping cough). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/pertussis. Updated December 1, 2014. Accessed January 22, 2015.
Tdap vaccine. What you need to know Centers for Disease control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.pdf. Updated May 9, 2013. Accessed January 22, 2015.
Last reviewed February 2016 by David L Horn, MD Last Updated: 1/13/2014